E. Coli

Escherichia Coli DNA

Summary

How genomes are organized inside cells and the way the 3D structure of a genome influences mobile features are vital questions in biology. A bacterial genomic DNA resides inside cells in a extremely condensed and functionally organized kind referred to as nucleoid (nucleus-like construction and not using a nuclear membrane). The Escherichia coli chromosome or nucleoid consists of the genomic DNA, RNA, and protein. The nucleoid types by condensation and purposeful association of a single chromosomal DNA with the assistance of chromosomal architectural proteins and RNA molecules in addition to DNA supercoiling. Though a high-resolution construction of a bacterial nucleoid is but to return, 5 a long time of analysis has established the next salient options of the E. coli nucleoid elaborated beneath:

1) The chromosomal DNA is on the typical a negatively supercoiled molecule that’s folded as plectonemic loops, that are confined into many unbiased topological domains attributable to supercoiling diffusion limitations;

2) The loops spatially set up into megabase measurement areas referred to as macrodomains, that are outlined by extra frequent bodily interactions amongst DNA websites inside the similar macrodomain than between totally different macrodomains;

3) The condensed and spatially organized DNA takes the type of a helical ellipsoid radially confined within the cell; and

4) The DNA within the chromosome seems to have a condition-dependent 3-D construction that’s linked to gene expression in order that the nucleoid structure and gene transcription are tightly interdependent, influencing one another reciprocally. Present advents of high-resolution microscopy, single-molecule evaluation and molecular construction dedication of the parts are anticipated to disclose the whole construction and performance of the bacterial nucleoid.

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Introduction

In lots of micro organism, the chromosome is a single covalently closed (round) double-stranded DNA molecule that encodes the genetic data in a haploid kind. The scale of the DNA varies from 500,000 to a number of million base-pairs (bp) encoding from 500 to a number of thousand genes relying on the organism. The chromosomal DNA is current in cells in a extremely condensed, organized kind referred to as nucleoid (nucleus-like), which isn’t encased by a nuclear membrane as in eukaryotic cells.

The remoted nucleoid accommodates 80% DNA, 10% protein, and 10% RNA by weight [1, 2]. On this exposition, we overview our present data about

(i) how chromosomal DNA turns into the nucleoid,

(ii) the elements concerned therein,

(iii) what is understood about its construction, and

(iv) how a few of the DNA structural features affect gene expression, utilizing the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli as a mannequin system. We additionally spotlight some associated points that must be resolved. This exposition is an extension of previous critiques on the topic [3, 4].

There are two important features of nucleoid formation; condensation of a giant DNA right into a small mobile house and purposeful group of DNA in a three-dimensional kind. The haploid round chromosome in E. coli consists of ~ 4.6 x 106 bp. If DNA is relaxed within the B kind, it will have a circumference of ~1.5 millimeters (0.332 nm x 4.6 x 106) (Fig 1A). Nevertheless, a big DNA molecule such because the E. coli chromosomal DNA doesn’t stay a straight inflexible molecule in a suspension. Brownian movement will generate curvature and bends in DNA.

The utmost size as much as which a double-helical DNA stays straight by resisting the bending enforced by Brownian movement is ~50 nm or 150 bp, which is named the persistence size. Thus, pure DNA turns into considerably condensed with none further elements; at thermal equilibrium, it assumes a random coil kind. The random coil of E. coli chromosomal DNA (Fig 1B) would occupy a quantity (4/Three π r3) of ~ 523 μm3, calculated from the radius of gyration (Rg = (√N a)/√6) the place a is the Kuhn size (2 x persistence size), and N is the variety of Kuhn size segments within the DNA (complete size of the DNA divided by a). Though DNA is already condensed within the random coil kind, it nonetheless can not assume the quantity of the nucleoid which is lower than a micron (Fig 1C). Thus, the inherent property of DNA will not be adequate: further elements should assist condense DNA additional on the order of ~103 (quantity of the random coil divided by the nucleoid quantity).

E. coli Strains
E. coli Strains

The second important side of nucleoid formation is the purposeful association of DNA. Chromosomal DNA will not be solely condensed but in addition functionally organized in a approach that’s appropriate with DNA transaction processes equivalent to replication, recombination, segregation, and transcription (Fig 1C). Virtually 5 a long time of analysis starting in 1971 [1], has proven that the ultimate type of the nucleoid arises from a hierarchical group of DNA. On the smallest scale (1 -kb or much less), nucleoid-associated DNA architectural proteins condense and set up DNA by bending, looping, bridging or wrapping DNA.

At a bigger scale (10 -kb or bigger), DNA types plectonemic loops, a braided type of DNA induced by supercoiling. On the megabase scale, the plectonemic loops coalesce into six spatially organized domains (macrodomains), that are outlined by extra frequent bodily interactions amongst DNA websites inside the similar macrodomain than between totally different macrodomains [7]. Lengthy- and short-range DNA-DNA connections fashioned inside and between the macrodomains contribute to condensation and purposeful group. Lastly, the nucleoid is a helical ellipsoid with areas of extremely condensed DNA on the longitudinal axis [8–10]. We focus on these organizational options of the nucleoid and their molecular foundation beneath.

Key Ideas:

  • E. coli is a most well-liked host for gene cloning as a result of excessive effectivity of introduction of DNA molecules into cells.
  • E. coli is a most well-liked host for protein manufacturing attributable to its fast development and the power to specific proteins at very excessive ranges.
  • Bacterial conjugation can be utilized to switch giant DNA fragments from one bacterium to a different.
  • E. coli is a most well-liked host for the examine of phage biology as a result of detailed data of its nucleic acid and protein biosynthetic pathways.
  • The power of E. coli to develop on chemically outlined media coupled with its intensive genetic toolbox make it a key system in examine of bacterial metabolic pathways.
Escherichia-coli
Escherichia-coli

DNA cloning by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli

Summary

The cloning of overseas DNA in Escherichia coli episomes is a cornerstone of molecular biology. The pioneering work within the early 1970s, utilizing DNA ligases to stick DNA into episomal vectors, continues to be probably the most broadly used strategy. Right here we describe a distinct precept, utilizing ET recombination1,2, for directed cloning and subcloning, which affords quite a lot of benefits. Most prominently, a selected DNA area could be cloned from a fancy combination with out prior isolation. Therefore cloning by ET recombination resembles PCR in that each contain the amplification of a DNA area between two chosen factors. We apply the technique to subclone chosen DNA areas from a number of goal molecules resident in E. coli hosts, and to clone chosen DNA areas from genomic DNA preparations. Right here we analyze fundamental features of the strategy and current a number of examples that illustrate its simplicity, flexibility, and memorable effectivity.

Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair protein MutL (mutL)

1-CSB-EP543397ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
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  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair protein MutL(mutL) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli O6:H1 Replicative DNA helicase (dnaB)

1-CSB-EP811243EGXa0
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
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Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli O6:H1 Replicative DNA helicase(dnaB) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody

abx411320-1ml 1 ml
EUR 509

Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody

abx415692-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 634

Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody

abx415712-1ml 1 ml
EUR 606

Escherichia coli DNA replication and repair protein RecF (recF)

1-CSB-EP358973ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
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  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA replication and repair protein RecF(recF) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody (Biotin)

abx411321-1ml 1 ml
EUR 592

Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody (FITC)

abx411322-1ml 1 ml
EUR 509

Escherichia coli (E. coli) Antibody (Biotin)

abx415713-1ml 1 ml
EUR 718

Escherichia coli Flagellin (fliC)

1-CSB-EP300968ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Flagellin(fliC) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli Flagellin (fliC)

1-CSB-EP300968ENVe1
  • EUR 727.00
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 1943.00
  • EUR 1055.00
  • EUR 1335.00
  • EUR 513.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
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  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Flagellin(fliC) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli Exopolyphosphatase (ppx)

1-CSB-EP365319ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Exopolyphosphatase(ppx) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli Agmatinase (speB)

1-CSB-EP001447ENM
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Agmatinase(speB) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli Ribokinase (rbsK)

1-CSB-EP019397ENV
  • EUR 611.00
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 1827.00
  • EUR 939.00
  • EUR 1218.00
  • EUR 397.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli Ribokinase(rbsK) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli PCR kit

PCR-VHA207-48D 50T
EUR 453

Escherichia coli PCR kit

PCR-VHA207-96D 100T
EUR 572

Top10F Escherichia coli Strains

S0024 100 ul
EUR 365

TG1 Escherichia coli Strains

S0026 100 ul
EUR 365

HB101 Escherichia coli Strains

S0031 100 ul
EUR 365

DH10B Escherichia coli Strains

S0032 100 ul
EUR 365

DH10Bac Escherichia coli Strains

S0033 100 ul
EUR 365

Stbl2 Escherichia coli Strains

S0034 100 ul
EUR 365

Stbl3 Escherichia coli Strains

S0035 100 ul
EUR 365

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